It all started with the Ionian Revolt, where the Greeks rose high in Persian territory in the year 499 BC. In the war with Persia, the aid came from multiple sources, primarily from Athens and various other Greek cities. However, they had to recede after numerous defeats by 494 BC. The Persian War was fought over 50 years between the Hellenics and the Achaemenid Empire when it comes to the Persian War. This was the turning point where the Athenian empire grew and went to the Golden Age. The Greek army was primarily funded by silver mining. These funds were the primary reason the Greeks became more powerful and rebuffed all the inclusions led by the Persian forces.
How Did It Originate?
If we are to believe the historians, it is said that after the downfall of the Mycenaean Civilization, several Greeks shifted to Asia Minor. The immigrants or settlers from Greece were primarily from three major ethnic groups, Dorians, Ionians, and Aeolians. The Ionians were in the majority, choosing Lydia and Caria’s coasts. Here, they established 12 towns, and these towns were made politically independent. However, they were seen sharing their cultural heritage. In Asia Minor, where the Lydians have established themselves, they came to conquer the Ionian cities and were successful. This war made the entire region into a conflict zone and later became the starting point of the Persian war.
Persian Invasion Of Greece
A general from the Persian army, Mardonius, started a crusade involving Macedonia and Thrace. Through this campaign, Thrace was once again captivated by him, and later, Macedonia was forced to become a dutiful territory of Persia. Before this forced act, both the regions were completely working as an autonomy. Though the war had been won, Mardonius became critically injured and was instantly taken back to Asia Minor. At the coast of Mount Athos, a storm has wiped away the entire 1200-ship naval fleet. Later, the Persian king Darius appointed dedicated ambassadors for all the Greek cities and sent them there to become fully submissive. The demand of the Persian king came after this recent victory. Everyone was compliant, except Sparta and Athens. These two cities crucified the ambassadors that were appointed for them. It was a beckon that Athens would continue to defy, and eventually, Sparta was also in the conflict.
The Rise Of Athenian Empire
If we discuss the primary turning point, it was the Battle of Mycale. After this battle, Greeks became quite offensive against Persians and stepped ahead to chase them from the Aegean Sea. It was 478 BC when Athens moved to capture Byzantium. While doing so, the Athenian empire was able to ally all the islands and a few mainland states to come together, and it was called the Delian League. The name was given after the treasury behind this alliance was kept on Delos island. The sacred island was given smoothly continuing the war with Persians, planning future invasions, and dividing all the spoils. Later, Sparta withdrew itself from the alliance, stating that the purpose had already been achieved by liberating all the Greek cities and mainlands in Asia Minor. According to experts and historians, Sparta could not entirely put its trust in the Delian League. Once Sparta wasn’t in the picture, Athens gained full naval and commercial prowess across the Hellenic world.