In the field of infectious diseases, pandemics are the most serious. When an epidemic spread outside a country, the disease officially becomes a pandemic.
Infectious diseases existed in the age of hunting and gathering people, but after turning to agricultural life 10,000 years ago, the community created new opportunities for epidemics. During this period, malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, influenza, smallpox, and others appeared for the first time.
Plague of Athens (429-426 BC)
The plague of Athens (death toll: 75,000-100,000) came through the port of Piraeus around 430 BC. C. and it exploded in all the city in 429 a. C. Thucydides wrote:
In the past, there have been outbreaks of the disease in the Lemnos area and in many other places, but a large-scale plague and damage to human life have not been recorded before. The doctors did not manage, because for the first time they treated this disease out of ignorance. In fact, the more they are in contact with patients, the greater their responsibility in life. (III.81; Grant, 77)
Athens fought in the Second Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) against Sparta, and the general and statesman Pericles recently ordered a withdrawal outside the walls of Athens. Almost a quarter of the population that is now increasing means that once the plague enters the city, there is no room for isolation of patients. Therefore, the disease spreads rapidly.
Symptoms include fever, sneezing, sore throat, bad breath, severe cough, chest pain, insomnia, and cramps. Many people were healthy when the plague broke out, but died ten days after the first symptoms of fever. That heat reaches unbearable levels and constantly needs unbearable water. Those who tried to help died so quickly that others began to abandon the disease and take care of their own interests. Thucydides described the total violation of the law and the rejection of religious practices:
Even so, those who survived the disease and found they were now immune are still eager to help those still suffering. The plague killed many prominent citizens, including Pericles, and influenced the outcome of the war. With so many dead, the city was severely weakened and Athens tried to support the war effort and was eventually lost to Sparta.
Anthony’s Plague (165-c. 180/190 AD)
Plague of Antony (death toll: 5 million) shared by Marcus Aurelius (circa 161-180 AD) and Lucius Verus (circa 161-169 AD) Roman Empire, named for the Aurelius family, destroyed under the rule– Anthony. The first appeared in the Roman army during the siege of Seleucia in the winter of AD 165-166. C. and it was distributed by these forces that were returning to Rome or were stationed elsewhere.
Modern scholars believe that Anthony’s Castle was originally from China and stretched westward along the Silk Road.
As described by Galen, symptoms begin with a fever and include diarrhea, rash, sore throat, excruciating thirst, cough, and vomiting, accompanied by pharyngitis (inability to swallow). Those who contracted the disease died or recovered within two weeks. Modern scholars believe that the plague originated in China and spread westward along the Silk Road because cities such as Ctesiphon and Seleucia were important trade links that linked directly to Chinese suppliers. However, people at the time interpreted this epidemic as a punishment for sin, and there were several stories of accusation.
According to historian Cassius Dion (l.c. 155-c. 235 CE), the disease killed more than 2,000 people a day and killed Lucius Verus (169 CE) and Aurelius. (180 AD). Aurelius blamed the Christians for the plague, claiming that they enraged the gods and persecuted them, refusing to join the state religion. However, at this time, Christians became the main guardians, ignoring their own safety and caring for those in need. More people converted to Christianity.
Black Death (1347-1352 AD)
The Black Death, estimated at 30 million deaths, is the most famous plague in history, killing between 30% and 50% of the European population. Although the epidemic is confirmed to be a plague, there are two other types. As with previous flare-ups, symptoms begin with fever, body aches, and fatigue, followed by Bubu in the groin, armpits, and ears. The black bubbles gave the name to the plague. People generally die within three days of infection.
The plague is also believed to have originated in Asia, and was most likely transported through Sicily via eastern Genoese merchant ships that were full of rats and fleas (although historians also use land from the Route of Silk as a possible source of transmission). The most likely source is Genoese ships. One of them docked in Marseille and Valencia and transmitted the disease to both, according to reports. For two years Britain, France, and Spain were involved in this plague, and then trade brought it to Ireland. Author c. In 1350 it spread to Germany, then Scandinavia and spread to Russia.