In Greek mythology, there are no primitive texts like the Christian Bible or the Hindu Vedas to represent all the mythological characters and stories. In contrast, the oldest Greek mythology
was part of an oral tradition that began in the Bronze Age, and its plots and themes were gradually revealed in the written literature of the ancient and classical periods. For example, in the epic of the poet Homer “Iliad and Odyssey” of century VIII a. C. tells the story of the (mythical) Trojan Horse War, which is both a conflict between God and humans. However, since readers and listeners are already familiar with them, they need not worry about portraying the gods as their protagonists. Around 700 a. The theogony of the poet Hesiod introduced the first written cosmology or origin story in Greek mythology. Theogony tells the story of the universe from nothingness (chaos, primitive nothingness) to existence and introduces in detail Chaos, Gaia (earth), Oran (sky), Ponto (sea) and Tartaros (the underworld). Later, Greek writers and artists used and improved these materials in their works. For example, mythological characters and events appeared in the fifth-century works of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, as well as in the handwriting of Pindar. Writers like the Greek mythological of the second-century a. Apolodoro of Athens and the Roman historian of the century I a. C. Gaius Julius Hyginus wrote ancient myths and legends for modern audiences.
The center of the mythology of Greek is the Pantheon of the Gods, which is said to live on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. From their habitat, they controlled all aspects of human life. The Olympian goddesses look like men and women (although they can transform into animals and other things) and, as many myths say, they are vulnerable to cruelty and human passions.The twelve gods of Olympus are the most important gods of ancient Greece. They showed great kindness and punished severely with their unusual qualities. They argue with each other, love and protect their mortal loved ones, but each plays a more important role in the Greek worldview, thus representing important conditions and characteristics of human ideals such as justice, loyalty, wisdom, beautiful music. and the change of seasons.
Zeus (Jupiter, in Roman mythology): king of the gods (also father of the gods) and god of the weather, law and destiny.
Hera (Juno): Goddess and Queen of the Goddess and Marriage.
Aphrodite (Venus): goddess of beauty and love
Apollo: god of prophecy, music, poetry and knowledge.
Ares (Mars): The God of War
Artemis (Diana): The goddess of hunting, animals and childbirth.
Athena (Minerva): Goddess of wisdom and protection
Ceres: goddess of agriculture and food
Dionysus (Bacchus): god of wine, pleasure and celebrations
Hephaestus (Vulcan): Vulcan, metallurgy and sculpture
Hermes (Mercury): God of travel, hospitality and commerce and personal messenger of Zeus.
Poseidon (Neptune): God of the sea
The Greeks did not always agree with the twelve peoples. Other gods that are sometimes listed as Olympians include:
Hades (Pluto): god of the underworld
Hestia (Vesta): goddess of family and family
Eros (Cupid): Aphrodite, sex god and minion
Heroes and Monsters
However, Greek mythology tells more than stories of gods and goddesses. Human heroes like the adventurer Hercules, who performed 12 impossible jobs for King Eurystheus (later he was worshiped as a god for his achievements); Pandora was the first woman and her curiosity brought humanity, here comes evil. King Pygmalion fell in love with an ivory statue; the weaver Arachne, due to her arrogance, turned into a spider. Ganymede, the handsome prince of Troy, became the bartender of the gods; Midas, the golden king; just as important as the young narcissist who falls in love with his own reflection. The story also shows monsters and “hybrids” (human-animal forms): winged flying horses, centaur-centaur, lion-woman-sphinx and girl-bird Habis, cyclops, cyclops, automata (metal, life-giving creatures of Hephaestus, praying mantises Unicorns, real animals, gnomes, minotaurs, satyrs and various dragons. There are many gods and goddesses who have shared stories with these creatures. Almost as famous as the hero.